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Nutritional glossary

Nutritional glossary


Nutritional glossary

Lactic acid : substance produced by the body from carbohydrates during exercise performed without oxygen.

Anaerobic : situation without oxygen.

ATP : adenosine triphosphate, the substrate enabling cells to convert energy into muscular exercise.

Carbohydrates : nutrients that must represent 50 to 55% of the daily energy in a balanced diet. We distinguish foods rich in complex carbohydrates (starchy foods) from those rich in simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit, sweets, etc.). In a balanced diet, foods rich in complex carbohydrates should form the larger part of the daily diet.

Glycogen : in which the body stores carbohydrates (in the muscles and liver).

Hypoglycaemia : fall in blood glucose concentration below the normal level

Isotonic : having the same concentration of carbohydrates, minerals, etc. as the blood.

Fats : nutrients that must represent 30 to 35% of the daily energy in a balanced diet. Foods with the most fats are fatty substances (oils, butter, margarine, etc.), but fats are also found in some other foods (cooked meats, fatty meats, fatty cheese, fried food, pastries, etc.).

Proteins : nutrients that must represent 10 to 15% of the daily energy in a balanced diet. Proteins are essential constituents of the body, especially the muscles. The foods with the most protein are meat and its equivalents (fish, eggs, etc.), dairy products, dried vegetables and soya.